We value lived experience and believe having a disability is a natural part of the human experience. Like other forms of diversity, access and inclusion in all aspects of life are paramount.
Much has been written about outcomes following de-institutionalisation. This work often highlights evidence of overall improved well-being following de-institutionalisation and the anomalies and disparate literature across measures, data, and results. This review aimed to bring this literature together and provide synthesis to identify the enablers that promote a successful transition from congregating or group homes into more independent or individualised living arrangements and how these enablers might prevent movement back into congregated living environments. The successful transition was not consistently or objectively defined across the literature in conducting this review. Much of the qualitative literature emphasised that successful transition might not be a physical move, and other literature emphasised personal agency (or individual control and authority) in a successful transition. For example, Pollard (2015) defined transition as a broad term that is successful when individuals achieve their own goals and improve their quality of life.
Intellectual disability and daily living skills People with intellectual disabilities are more likely than their age-related peers to need extra support to carry out everyday activities. It is essential to have realistic expectations and consider what kind of support will help develop their independence. While others may learn household tasks by watching their parents or carers, adults with intellectual disabilities may require more step by step methods to help them learn lessons. Daily activities The following is a list of activities that adults may be expected to carry out independently: Helping around the house.
Location Teach the person the task where the job will usually be done. For instance, if a person is learning to iron their clothes, teach them how to iron in the room where they typically iron. This helps the person become familiar with the room’s layout, where items are kept, how to prepare to begin ironing and how to pack everything away. Step-by-step Sometimes, breaking a task into small steps and teaching one step at a time can make it easier for a person to learn the whole activity. For example:
Backward Chaining ‘Backward chaining’ is a technique you can use to help a person learn a new skill. It means the person is taught the task in reverse order. Take the person through the first steps of the study and begin teaching at the point where the last step begins. Page 2 of 4 For example, the first step to learn when teaching ironing would be to ‘put the ironing board away. The person then completes this final step. The process continues over time as you complete one more minor degree, and the person you are supporting does one more until they can do the whole task independently. Backward chaining means the person receives instant success, which will likely increase their motivation and confidence. Schedules are designed to bring routine and predictability to a person’s day.
A written schedule may help the person understand and remember planned activities. Using pictures of activities during the day is a great way to promote independence and help the person learn routines. Practice Regular practice is essential to understand and maintain skills. Tips for making the activity easier Helpful Equipment and Techniques Sometimes assistive devices, a change in the environment or different techniques can make it easier for a person to learn and complete a task. A few ideas
The quality of each study included in the academic literature was assessed based on the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality assessment tools. Depending on the study design, checklists for cohort, cross-sectional and qualitative studies were used. Each study was rated based on the selection of participants, study design, methodology for statistical analysis or narrative synthesis and interpretation of findings. Overall rating scores were summed as ‘poor’ (50 per cent or less of the checklist criteria were met), ‘fair’ (75 per cent or less) and ‘good’ (over 75 per cent of the checklist criteria were met). The included qualitative and quantitative papers were assessed by an independent researcher using the JBI tools. Once the initial review was complete, a random sample comprising ten per cent of each category of the included papers was re-assessed for consistency by two other researchers. Quality assessment of grey literature and environmental scan websites was not completed. Once these sources met the broad eligibility criteria and were recommended by experts, they were included. As such, findings from these sources should be interpreted without quality assessment in mind.
We believe that people should live an entire life connected to their community, supported by people who genuinely care and family and friends they love. We understand that the power imbalance usually exists and aim to have the dignity you deserve to thrive and control your life.
Love to Care works with individuals and families to develop support plans and facilitates opportunities for growth and change.
We recognise individuals’ ability to make their own choices and decisions. Our person-centred practice supports the individual in creating connections and meaningful relationships to create their best life and explore new opportunities. professionals and focused on what works for you.